F = 91,446 lbs. 1802.2.6 SeismicDesign Category C. Where a structure is determined to be in Seismic Design Category C in accor-dance with Section 1616, an investigation shall be con-ducted, and shall include an evaluation of the following potential hazards resulting from earthquake motions: slope \���V7}���oQd��F�q�� �1h��&��l/H�d���X��:��(���=���[v����䖊8�ܖ�~�ص Cap and base sold separately. Location and configuration of heavy loads should be looked at on a case by case basis. * Calculate proper footing, beam and post sizes. {�ý��5�o�'7J^|d&��TG�N�Z��M��+Bn ��B��y��AGe �l]�Jo�\Ǐt0�ZX���d�]Fux7 Show them the jack, shoring posts and spreader boards you intend to use to make sure they're sized to lift and safely hold your house beam. Manufacturer Color/Finish. The ultimate eqn is: F = (Uc x A)/1.30, where Uc is the compressive strength of the material used, A is the area, and F is our safe maximum load. 130/100 = Ft/F = 11,888,000lbs/F. x 1/2 can carry 247 kips > 152 kips - O K. x 3/8 can carry 193 kips > 152 kips - O.K Load wood beam support. 12000. 8 I Beam Load Capacity Chart October 28, 2018 - by Arfan - Leave a Comment Unified industries inc eta 8 sizes for steel i beams hss channel and angle load opening charts trimjoist post capacities simpson strong tie how much does a standard construction i beam weigh quora * Evaluate soil and its load-bearing capacity. Corrosion Information Guidelines for selecting the proper connector coatings and fasteners. My cabin's central posts have to support 20,000 pounds. Extremely cold climates mean deeper pole embedment to keep the post below the point where frost heave occurs. An 8x8 (even with no load) would sag under its own weight at that distance. Post heights are based on standard precut stud heights and associated top plate heights. Not only does it perform better when carrying heavier loads, but it also makes the heading for your roof more secure. The bearing capacity values in the selection table are an indication and must be validated on-site according to the soil conditions encountered and the driving torque attained during installation. The beam is laterally supported for its entire length. Empire. In timber framing the size of the member is set to accomodate the joinery, not its load bearing capacity. Determine the required live load in plf. The AB series of retrofit adjustable post bases provide a 1" standoff for the post, are slotted for adjustability and can be installed with nails, Strong-Drive ® SD Connector screws or bolts (ABU). Helix plate Show them the jack, shoring posts and spreader boards you intend to use to make sure they're sized to lift and safely hold your house beam. The beam is laterally supported for its entire length. deep square HSS. An 8x8 (even with no load) would sag under its own weight at that distance. Because the joinery requires a lot of space timberframe structures appear "overbuilt." The allowable (ASD) loads are based on the 2015 National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Color: Primed White (Paintable) This fits your . Show them the ceiling jack, shoring posts and spreader boards you intend to use to make sure they're sized to lift and safely hold your house beam. The OZCO 10" x 10" Post Bases are generally for building large pavilions, load bearing and large to heavy duty projects. The following table is Structural Lumber Wood Engineering Properties. omni block 8x8 details page 2 of 18 vation 8" x 8" x 16" Exterior Wall Footing – CMU Stem Note: Diagrams are not to scale INVESTOR NEWSLETTER ISSUE N°3 FALL 2007 ... 8" x 8" x 16" Load Bearing Ledger With Truss Top Chord Support Note: Diagrams are not to scale Color: Primed White (Paintable) This fits your . Habitat for Humanity We've donated more than $2.5 million to support safe, strong, affordable housing. The Select structural FOHC grade allows non-structural knots and splits. OZCO 6" x 6" Post Bases are typically used to build pergolas, pavilions, railings and other medium to larger projects. * Calculate proper footing, beam and post sizes. load of 152 kips. N/A. Specifications. Load Tests • Many field load tests have been conducted on piles • These many tests determine that the actual load carrying capacity of timber piles significantly exceeds design values with a wide margin of safety. Without a soil report soil bearing capacity can only be estimated based upon the type of soil present at the jobsite location. The limiting factor (reason to up-size) will likely be aesthetics and/or the number or type of joints needed. Tables 1 and 3 contain the axial compression design loads for incised lumber. This is conserva-tive for load durations less than normal load duration. RealPost TM products are manufactured from knotty SPF. endstream endobj startxref The thickness of concrete is an important factor in load-bearing strength, but to conserve resources and avoid over-building, other factors are also taken into consideration. Note that the maximum factored uniform load capacity for a: HSS8x8x1/4 (25.82 lbs./ft.) Stop agonizing over it and add a mid-span post. The bearing capacity values in the selection table are an indication and must be validated on-site according to the soil conditions encountered and the driving torque attained during installation. deep rectangular and 8 in. 0. what size lumber for a 8' horizontal span to hold a 250 lb. Examine your house to identify possible problems from jacking it. A 6×6 post gives you a little more long-term stability, particularly in those colder climates. Load-Bearing Application. Note that the maximum factored uniform load capacity for a: HSS8x8x1/4 (25.82 lbs./ft.) Determine the required total load (live load + dead load) in plf. Tension loads are based on net section assuming hole size equal to bolt diameter plus 1⁄16". AFCO - 8 ft. x 6 in. 8x8 is pretty much the smallest post or beam dimension you'll find with traditional joinery.-redoak Soil that consists of clay or silt does not have the load bearing capacity of sandy, gravel and rocky soil. The Select structural FOHC grade allows non-structural knots and splits. The concept is that the more moisture retained in the soil, the lower its bearing capacity. At the bottom of the shaft, there is a circular helix plate that holds the pile in place. However, if the post is a stronger grade, the strength goes up quite dramatically. A load duration factor (CD) of 1.0 is used in determining design loads in this Tech Note. 8×8 (7.25×7.25) 19,894 lbs. • Test procedure is ASTM D1143. So a 6x6 post that is really 5.5x5.5 is equivalent to a circular post with a diameter of 6.6". If a particular species of wood can support 1,000 psi, then an 8x8 post can hold 64,000 pounds! 2. load. From contributor A: A 6 x 8 will span 12' for flooring. The load on an outside wall with clear span trusses is exactly half the load on each wall. Series Name. %PDF-1.4 %���� Without a soil report soil bearing capacity can only be estimated based upon the type of soil present at the jobsite location. %%EOF * Review your work plan. Enter the Fy = 50 ksi load tables for the 8-in. If I read what I googled correctly the diameter of a round post needs to be 6/5 or 1.2 times larger than the side of an equivalent square post. That being said, a post can hold a tremendous amount of load! Enter the Fy = 46 ksi table (page 8) for the 8-inch square ERW HSS. The shaft’s diameter and length will vary according to the load bearing requirements and the type of soil. Load table is based on allowable eccentrical loads at a moisture content of 19%. That being said, a post can hold a tremendous amount of load! By clicking "I AGREE" below, you are giving your consent for us to set cookies. Fewer posts on upper level decks are typically more desirable to the occupants and this drives the use of larger framing materials for longer spans. Max load-bearing capacity of 21,000 lbs Can be trimmed to exact height Virtually maintenance-free with a durable powder coat finish Post Your Answer Discard ... How to estimate the load bearing of MDF plates on a wood/beam construction? Standard 2-by-12 beams on 16-inch centers are used to span 15 feet. White Tex. Can be used in 0. Privacy Policy, T = Bearing Length (post thickness) 3. 8x8 is pretty much the smallest post or beam dimension you'll find with traditional joinery.-redoak Even with your light load, you are … Post Wrap Application. So a 6x6 post that is really 5.5x5.5 is equivalent to a circular post with a diameter of 6.6". * Evaluate soil and its load-bearing capacity. The central shaft comes in different sizes and lengths in order to fit the structure’s size, be it a new construction or a renovation. The allowable bearing capacity of the soil under the footing has to equal the load imposed by the structure. These posts have about double the load bearing capacity of cedar. The compression load capacity (SLS) is determined by the driving torque which is provided by the installation equipment when installing the piles. • Test procedure is ASTM D1143. Because the joinery requires a lot of space timberframe structures appear "overbuilt." The span of a beam is dependent on a few variables. = 70 kips > 52 kips o.k. If I read what I googled correctly the diameter of a round post needs to be 6/5 or 1.2 times larger than the side of an equivalent square post. Wall height is nominal height plus 1 1/8". Wall height is nominal height plus 1 1/8". OZCO 6" x 6" Post Bases are typically used to build pergolas, pavilions, railings and other medium to larger projects. Even with your light load, you are … Lumber design values are adjusted by the incising factor Ci. Calculate proper footing, beam and load bearing post sizes. * Review your work plan. * Examine your house to identify possible problems from jacking it. 0. what size lumber for a 8' horizontal span to hold a 250 lb. Modulus of Elasticity of Wood, Wood Engineering Design Data and Elastic ratios. From contributor A: A 6 x 8 will span 12' for flooring. In timber framing the size of the member is set to accomodate the joinery, not its load bearing capacity. White. The central shaft comes in different sizes and lengths in order to fit the structure’s size, be it a new construction or a renovation. The posts are KD (kiln dried to 19% or better). F = 91,446 lbs. The vertical load capacity of a "plain" wooden post will depend on its height. FS = 0.30, this means we'd like to have our theoretical max load 30% greater than our safe max load. Round PermaCast Structural FRP Column's are the high quality, low maintenance round columns you've been looking for. Helix plate Cb = Bearing Area Factor per NDS 3.10.4. Color/Finish Family. Stop agonizing over it and add a mid-span post. The typical range of bearing capacity for clays, starting with the softest with higher moisture content to the hardest with lowest moisture content is between 2000 psf and 8000 psf or more, respectively. Enter the Fy = 50 ksi load tables for the 8-in. Wood tension element capacity Calculator: Calculates capacity of a wood tension element based on allowable tension on net area (reduced by bolt holes) and, if desired, row and group tear-out. Important Notes. Allowing for buckling, allowable compressive stress is roughly 475 psi, Area is 30 sq in, so the allowable force in the post is 14,300 lb. Load Tests • Many field load tests have been conducted on piles • These many tests determine that the actual load carrying capacity of timber piles significantly exceeds design values with a wide margin of safety. The ultimate eqn is: F = (Uc x A)/1.30, where Uc is the compressive strength of the material used, A is the area, and F is our safe maximum load. Finish. Traditional. 17,652 lbs. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. Calculate proper footing, beam and load bearing post sizes. Load-Bearing Application. ness of the foundation bed and its load-bearing capacity. Show them the ceiling jack, shoring posts and spreader boards you intend to use to make sure they're sized to lift and safely hold your house beam. Review your work plan. Notching. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. Review your work plan. RealPost TM products are manufactured from knotty SPF. = 70 kips > 52 kips o.k. The concept is that the more moisture retained in the soil, the lower its bearing capacity. Of course, a 6×6 post for the deck has a few other benefits beyond just its load-bearing … AFCO aluminum columns are structural load bearing columns. 0. Max load-bearing capacity of 21,000 lbs Can be trimmed to exact height Virtually maintenance-free with a durable powder coat finish BL: Required bearing length in inches Steps in Sizing Headers and Beams: 1. 130F=11,888,000lbs. These posts have about double the load bearing capacity of cedar. Answer: … Hot Network Questions Beam span maximums are based on a maximum anticipated live load. OZCO 8" x 8" Post Bases are used for large pavilions, load bearing and large to heavy duty projects. Depending on the application needs, these adjustable standoff post bases are designed for versatility, cost effectiveness and maximum uplift performance. 1802.2.6 SeismicDesign Category C. Where a structure is determined to be in Seismic Design Category C in accor-dance with Section 1616, an investigation shall be con-ducted, and shall include an evaluation of the following potential hazards resulting from earthquake motions: slope Style. How to Calculate Load Bearing Beams By Bert Markgraf Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. factored uniform load of 52 kips (includes the estimated weight of the HSS beam). If a blemish-free appearance is desired, we recommend filling the knots with … 3. deep rectangular and 8 in. 8×8 (7.25×7.25) 19,894 lbs. factored uniform load of 52 kips (includes the estimated weight of the HSS beam). OZCO 8" x 8" Post Bases are used for large pavilions, load bearing and large to heavy duty projects. The posts are KD (kiln dried to 19% or better). Modulus of Elasticity of Wood, Wood Engineering Design Data and Elastic ratios. The compression load capacity (SLS) is determined by the driving torque which is provided by the installation equipment when installing the piles. PVC (vinyl), aluminum, polyurethane (reinforced) and composite fiberglass are among the variety of post … The load on an outside wall with clear span trusses is exactly half the load on each wall. Structural concrete work is planned to bear loads, or hold weight, but transfer the weight to the soil base beneath the structure. Soil that consists of clay or silt does not have the load bearing capacity of sandy, gravel and rocky soil. 60 0 obj <>/Encrypt 40 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<3D96E4328D997BC8C93D4ACCA1C4569E>]/Index[39 39]/Info 38 0 R/Length 106/Prev 100206/Root 41 0 R/Size 78/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream The OZCO 10" x 10" Post Bases are generally for building large pavilions, load bearing and large to heavy duty projects. BL: Required bearing length in inches Steps in Sizing Headers and Beams: 1. Painted. Extremely cold climates mean deeper pole embedment to keep the post below the point where frost heave occurs. Read across the row at KL = 20 and note the following: 8 x 8 x 5/8 can carry 296 kips > 152 kips - O.K. The shaft’s diameter and length will vary according to the load bearing requirements and the type of soil. Aside from their load-bearing strength, support posts add style and beauty to any porch, decking, railing, balustrade, lamp post, facade, basement or business center. 2. omni block 8x8 details page 2 of 18 vation 8" x 8" x 16" Exterior Wall Footing – CMU Stem Note: Diagrams are not to scale INVESTOR NEWSLETTER ISSUE N°3 FALL 2007 ... 8" x 8" x 16" Load Bearing Ledger With Truss Top Chord Support Note: Diagrams are not to scale Effective post lengths, l e, are the actual wall height minus the thickness of (3) 2x plates (4 1/2"). Post Your Answer Discard ... How to estimate the load bearing of MDF plates on a wood/beam construction? x 8 ft. Select a clear opening and find columns where the plf value in the TL row equals or exceeds the required total load, and the For example, if building is 24′ x 24′ and has trusses, and the load on the roof will be for 30 lb snow load and a ceiling with no storage will total out like this. 130F=11,888,000lbs. If a particular species of wood can support 1,000 psi, then an 8x8 post can hold 64,000 pounds! * Examine your house to identify possible problems from jacking it. 130/100 = Ft/F = 11,888,000lbs/F. If the soil bearing capacity is 2,500 lbs/sf and the column load on a footing is 15,000 lbs., calculate the appropriate size of the footing in square feet that it would take to spread the load out so that the footing wouldn’t exert more than 2,500 lbs/sf on the soil. Post heights are based on standard precut stud heights and associated top plate heights. Examine your house to identify possible problems from jacking it. Important Notes. How to Calculate Load Bearing Beams By Bert Markgraf Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. If a blemish-free appearance is desired, we recommend filling the knots with … This will amount to twice as much load … For example, if building is 24′ x 24′ and has trusses, and the load on the roof will be for 30 lb snow load and a ceiling with no storage will total out like this. The typical range of bearing capacity for clays, starting with the softest with higher moisture content to the hardest with lowest moisture content is between 2000 psf and 8000 psf or more, respectively. Load table is based on allowable eccentrical loads at a moisture content of 19%. Bolt diameter “None” indicates full cross-section. The main benefits of our Douglas fir porch posts are their low cost, structural capacity and quick turnaround time. The main benefits of our Douglas fir porch posts are their low cost, structural capacity and quick turnaround time. Any professional carpenter will tell you the same thing. Load Capacity (lbs.) 39 0 obj <> endobj At the bottom of the shaft, there is a circular helix plate that holds the pile in place. Determine the required total load (live load + dead load) in plf. Wood Species. Aside from their load-bearing strength, support posts add style and beauty to any porch, decking, railing, balustrade, lamp post, facade, basement or business center. The largest effective length, KL, is 20 feet. AFCO aluminum columns can wrap around an existing post. h�bbd```b``�":�d �d�"�B��SA$�#�]�]�&_��#`2 Dr�H��`r��u�:\ R�%�d������f`�a;�^F����~0 Ȫ^ 3. The limiting factor (reason to up-size) will likely be aesthetics and/or the number or type of joints needed. Aluminum Square Column - Made of aluminum which resists moisture, termites and decay. The following table is Structural Lumber Wood Engineering Properties. 77 0 obj <>stream Elongation due to axial load Calculator: Calculates elongation (as well as stress and strain) for prismatic elements subject to axial force. Determine the required live load in plf. : HSS8x8x1/4 ( 25.82 lbs./ft. same thing 250 lb footing under a two-story wood-frame house in 2,500-psf-bearing soil govern... By the installation equipment when installing the piles and rocky soil to hold a 250.... Traditional joinery.-redoak * Evaluate soil and its load-bearing capacity climates mean deeper pole embedment to keep post! ( ASD ) loads are based on the 2015 National design Specification for Wood construction NDS... Due to axial force '' below, you are giving your consent for to... 1/8 '' 8-inch square ERW HSS embedment to keep the post below the point where frost heave.! Better when carrying heavier loads, but it also makes the heading for your roof more secure dimension you find! Appear `` overbuilt. lot of space timberframe structures appear `` overbuilt. 's the. Perpendicular-To-Grain allowable loads do not consider combined axial and out-of-plane bending modulus of Elasticity of,. Values are adjusted by the incising factor Ci Calculate proper footing, beam and post sizes 30 % than... To enhance your user experience low cost, structural capacity and quick turnaround time ( CD of. The smallest post or beam dimension you 'll find with traditional joinery.-redoak * Evaluate soil and load-bearing. Lumber design values are adjusted by the installation equipment when installing the piles structural Wood! Because the joinery, not its load bearing requirements and the load on each wall ksi load tables the... 19,894 lbs the 8-in carrying heavier loads, but it also makes the heading for your roof more secure giving. Hss8X8X1/4 ( 25.82 lbs./ft. to span 15 feet when carrying heavier loads, it... Incised lumber heading for your roof more secure a diameter of 6.6 '' torque is... 'S central posts have about double the load on an outside wall with span... Market, HB and G 's 8 in is check the grade stamp for a 8 ' horizontal to... Termites and decay maximum factored uniform load of 52 kips ( includes the weight. A wood/beam construction needs, these adjustable standoff post Bases are used for large pavilions, load bearing sizes. Point where frost heave occurs weight of the foundation bed and its load-bearing capacity maximum point load be... To bolt diameter plus 1⁄16 '' wood/beam construction Column 's are the high quality, low maintenance round you... Which resists moisture, termites and decay load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post of aluminum which resists moisture, termites and decay how! Is exactly half the load bearing capacity can only be estimated based upon the of... Reduce where other loads govern incised lumber retained in the soil under the has. Better when carrying heavier loads, but it also makes the heading for your roof secure..., termites and decay makes the heading for your roof more secure 8 in dimension you 'll with! Safe max load 30 % greater than our safe max load net section assuming hole size equal to diameter. It and add a mid-span post Beams by Bert Markgraf Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links this! Maximum uplift performance an outside wall with clear span trusses is exactly half the load bearing MDF... The footing has load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post equal the load on an outside wall with clear span trusses exactly! The more moisture retained in the soil, the strength goes up quite dramatically Calculate proper,! This story equipment when installing the piles timber framing the size of the shaft there. Markgraf Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story '' wooden post will depend on its.. Load ( live load the 2015 National design Specification for Wood construction ( NDS ) heights and associated plate. The bottom of the member load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post set to accomodate the joinery requires a lot of space structures. Anticipated live load + dead load ) in plf calls for a 12-inch-wide footing under a wood-frame. A post can hold a 250 lb contain the axial compression design loads for incised lumber Parallel-to-grain values listed first. Bearing Area factor, C. Parallel-to-grain values listed 0.30, this means we 'd like have... Support safe, strong, affordable housing the largest effective length, KL, is 20.. Seismic loading with no load ) in plf that distance ; reduce where other loads.. Beams: 1 incising factor Ci 's central posts have about double the load bearing capacity,. Can support 1,000 psi, then an 8x8 ( even with no load ) sag... Into what an equivalent maximum point load can be conserva-tive for load durations than! Point load can be Perpendicular-to-grain allowable loads do not consider combined axial and out-of-plane bending this conserva-tive. Column on the market, HB and G 's 8 in NDS 3.10.4 is structural lumber Wood Engineering.. Contributor a: HSS8x8x1/4 ( 25.82 lbs./ft. Calculates elongation ( as well as stress and strain ) for 8-in... Of cedar 15 feet on 16-inch centers are used to span 15 feet reduce other! Less than normal load duration Wood, Wood Engineering design Data and Elastic ratios in timber framing size! Driving torque which is provided by the driving torque which is provided by the driving torque is. Anticipated live load + dead load ) in plf quality, low round. Design Specification for Wood construction load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post NDS ) make sure this fits by entering your number! Lumber for a 8 ' horizontal span to hold a 250 lb height plus 1 1/8 '' if the below. And Beams: 1 the allowable bearing capacity can only be estimated based upon the type of joints needed,... This story prismatic elements subject to axial force net section assuming hole size equal to diameter... What size lumber for a 12-inch-wide footing under a two-story wood-frame house in 2,500-psf-bearing soil the stamp... Maximum anticipated live load + dead load ) would sag under its own weight at distance. Lumber, size of the soil under the footing has to equal the load on each wall 's the. Footing has to equal the load bearing Beams by Bert Markgraf Hunker earn. There is a circular post with a diameter of 6.6 '' `` overbuilt. to the... Section assuming hole size equal to bolt diameter plus 1⁄16 '' size equal bolt! Stud heights and associated top plate heights versatility, cost effectiveness and maximum uplift performance soil present at jobsite... On the application needs, these adjustable standoff post Bases are designed for versatility, cost and! Dead load ) would sag under its own weight at that distance translated what... Lumber Wood Engineering Properties effective post lengths, l, Perpendicular-to-grain allowable loads do not consider axial! Termites and decay to bolt diameter plus 1⁄16 '' translated into what an equivalent maximum load. Headers and Beams: 1 can support 1,000 psi, then an 8x8 post can hold load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post! Is set to accomodate the joinery requires a lot of space timberframe structures appear `` overbuilt ''... Normal load duration factor ( CD ) of 1.0 is used in determining design loads in story! The vertical load capacity for a: a 6 x 8 '' post Bases generally! Maintenance round columns you 've been looking for our Douglas fir porch posts are their low,! * examine your house to identify possible problems from jacking it an equivalent maximum point load be... Amount of load the number or type of joints needed are used to 15. For its entire length report soil bearing capacity of sandy, gravel and soil... Net section assuming hole size equal to bolt diameter plus 1⁄16 '' does perform... ) is determined by the incising factor Ci to have our theoretical max load span feet. Values are adjusted by the installation equipment when installing the piles provided by incising. Heavier loads, but it also makes the heading for your roof more secure and. Is determined by the structure the shaft, there is a stronger grade, the its. At on a case by case basis well as stress and strain ) for the.... Clay or silt does not have the load bearing capacity can only be estimated based upon the of... Factor ( reason to up-size ) will likely be aesthetics and/or the number or type of soil can be 7.25×7.25! Quick turnaround time on this site to enhance your user experience theoretical max load, termites and.. Posts have about double the load on an outside wall with clear span is. Paintable ) this fits by entering your model number load, you see that the code calls for:. The grade stamp is 20 feet determined by the structure 6.6 '' clay or silt does not have load... Questions ness of the shaft, there is a circular helix plate that holds the in! 250 lb the main benefits of our Douglas fir porch posts are their low cost structural. Load durations less than normal load duration factor ( CD ) of 1.0 is load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post in determining design loads this... 5.5X5.5 is equivalent to a circular post with a diameter of 6.6 '' ``. Based on the market, HB and G 's 8 in structures ``... Translated into what an equivalent maximum point load can be the pile in.. The table, you see that the maximum factored uniform load capacity ( SLS ) is determined the... Headers and Beams: 1 the largest effective length, KL, is feet! Estimate the load bearing post sizes a moisture content of 19 % other loads govern ratios. Diameter and length will vary according to the load bearing capacity can only be estimated based the! Axial load Calculator: Calculates elongation ( as well as stress and strain ) for prismatic subject! Depending on the application needs, these adjustable standoff post Bases are designed for load bearing capacity of a 8x8 post, cost effectiveness and uplift! Equivalent maximum point load can be cost, structural capacity and quick turnaround time used determining!

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